Systems & complexity
System Failure: Why governments must learn to think differently
System Failure provides an introduction to systems thinking and why it is of critical importance. The traditional model of public policy-making, where complex problems are reduced into separate, rationally manageable components, is no longer appropriate to the challenges faced by governments and changes to the wider environment in which they operate. Systems thinking, which treats public services as complex adaptive systems, offers an alternative route to developing solutions and increasing system performance.